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The Ambiguous Ending of The Usual Suspects…

This post is somewhat prompted by an interesting discussion over at MCarter’s review of The Usual Suspects, concerning the ending. Some people remarked that while they were impressed with the ambiguity of the film, they thought that the ending was just a little bit too clear cut. I have no problem with a definite ending to a film, but I’m not so sure that The Usual Suspects is as open and shut as it might seem. But wait! you protest, as someone who has seen the film, That ending was fairly clear. Maybe it was. But maybe it wasn’t.

The highest quality photo of the "real" Keyser Soze...

The highest quality photo of the "real" Keyser Soze...

Note: Seeing as how this is a discussion on the ending of The Usual Suspects, it will obviously contain spoilers on the film. Don’t read this if you haven’t seen the movie. Really. Go, rent or borrow or buy the movie, watch it and come back – and give us your thoughts. The Usual Suspects is a movie you owe it to yourself not to ruin.

Right, to state my position clearly for the record, I believe that Kevin Spacey’s character is Keyzer Soze. In fact, the Word of God is that Kint is Soze – but we won’t let the word of the director or writer sway us, in fact I think they’d be happy that it was still generating so much debate and controversy. It’s the best fit, given the ending and all the factors that line up:

  • the artist’s depiction of Soze from the burn victim
  • the fact that ‘Verbal’ (Kint’s nickname) is a derivative of ‘to speak’ (the English translation of Soze)
  • the fact that Kint collects Soze’s lighter from evidence at the end of the film
  • the fact that Kint’s backstory seems to be completely made up
  • Kint faked a limp

That’s a lot of evidence, but any lawyer worth their salt knows that a huge amount of that is circumstantial. First of all, the only thing those last two points go to demonstrate are that Kint misrepresents himself throughout the film. If I put on a Southern accent that doesn’t immediately mean I’m a crime lord trying to hide my identity, it just means I’m trying to hide my identity. What we do know about Kint is that he actually exists. He has a police record. The man sitting in the chair has a mugshot that corresponds to a petty confidence man who already has a criminal record. It’s relatively easy to construct a complex narrative while sitting in a police station, but faking police records is a different kettle of fish – even if he is protected from ‘up on high by the prince of darkness’.

Assuming that we trust the police officers (at least more than we trust Kint), he has been arrested before. So a ruthless Turkish criminal mastermind (and we have to assume that part of Kint’s story is true since it takes a non-national to recognise him) is arrested as a petty con man in America? He’s that careless and stupid? And he’s running these scams himself when he has a whole criminal empire running underneath him? I’m skeptical.

Oh, but what about the ID? Well, keep in mind the only person who definitively knew what Soze looked like was killed in his own cabin. The burn victim in the hospital bed is only basing his identification off events he witnessed on the boat. It’s more than likely that Kint did go on a killing spree on the boat (or at least was involved), and if somebody caused that much damage while I was ferrying a man who was wanted by Soze, I’d jump to the conclusion that the guy shooting up the place was Soze as well. The whole point of the movie is that we shouldn’t trust what we see – why should we trust what a burnt mobster doped up the gills on morphine saw? We know Kint was there, so it’s little surprise the guy saw him.

We know that Kint was involved – that much is obvious from the ending. Even if he isn’t Soze himself, he’s very trusted – that’s not really a job you give to just a minor lieutenant. That would explain the lighter – maybe a gift, maybe a symbol of rank. The nickname could be simple misdirection – it’s really unlikely he gave himself the nickname of ‘Verbal’, because… well, when was the last time you successfully gave yourself a nickname? His involvement beyond lying to the police and being involved in the massacre on the boat is all purely circumstantial. There’s no way it would hold up in a court room. There’s certainly room to believe that Roger ‘Verbal’ Kint isn’t Keyser Soze. So, if he isn’t, who is?

Pick one...

Pick one...

We know that Soze must exist – as there was a man who could identify him. We know that he’s Turkish and we also know that he likes to handle things at a distance, through minions that you don’t know are minions and may not even know themselves that they are minions. Given that the only part of the story we know happened is the ending (as Kint is an unreliable narrator), we must put our emphasis there. The appearance of the man known as Kobayashi as Kint’s driver in the final moments stands out. Those paying attention during the reveal will know that Kobayashi isn’t the character’s real name – it’s taken from the bottom of a coffee cup. However, whatever his name, he does appear in Kint’s narrative, which makes it interesting – why not use his real name if you want to mask the lies with truth?

Kobayashi speaks with a foreign accent of some sort (though his English – being delivered by Pete Postlethwaite – is clear and educated). He’s a professional, working in law. He obviously feels comfortable enough in Soze’s organisation to make threats on his master’s behalf. His no-nonsense demeaner and calm and rational response to be threatened (threatening to kill the families of his attackers) call to mind Kint’s story about Soze in Turkey. Neither is afraid of death. Both operate at a distance from events that would allow them to gain the reputation of a spook or a ghost – an ethereal force driecting and controlling actions that even those involved in the actions aren’t completely aware of. Kobayashi makes a legitimate suspect if one rules out Kint.

There’s also the more obvious possibility (signposted by the film itself) that Keaton is Soze. It would suit his purpose for Kint to get caught – and really, why was he still there when the police arrived other than to be caught? – and to lie about Keaton’s death. That’s about all that stands in favour of Keaton as Soze. We see him shot at the start in what we must assume is an example of what actually happened (a dangerous assumption, I concede). There’s also the fact that – like Kint – he has an independently verified past. He was a cop in the NYPD. He went to prison. Sure, this is hardly definitive, but it would seem to rule him out as an international criminal mastermind.

I have one more ‘possible’ down on my list and it’s a longshot that I haven’t heard mentioned in discussions on the film. Soze wanted Kint to get caught. He wanted him brought in. If it wasn’t to create the myth of Keaton’s death, why else would it be? To further exaggerate the Soze legend? Perhaps. It’s still a hell of a risk to take for misdirection. It relies on complete faith in Kint while he’s in police custody (and trust is a rare commodity in these gangland circles) and also depends on the police not figuring out Kint is a big fish until he’s been released. Those are two huge gambits for so careful and discrete a figurehead to make purely for the purposes of muddying the water, right? Maybe not.

The entire film hinges on the initial police lineup involving at least McManus (as the man with the job), Keaton (as the fall guy) and Kint (as the inside man) – the film even draws attention to this. Who could engineer a police line-up? Who recorded Kint’s ‘confession’, even though it was inadmissible? Who ‘discovered’ Kint was Soze? Yep, it was US Customs Agent Dave Kujan. He interviewed Kint, but made sure it was recorded – and made sure that Rabin was listening. He rounded up Keaton for the line-up – he could have set up the others as well. He was the one who prompted Kint to name Keaton as Soze, which was at best a stopgap measure. Assuming Keaton’s body would be pulled from the water eventually, that theory would only be plausible for so long and only served to give the closure necessary to let Kint go. On the other hand, Kint as Soze? That could last forever. Now people know what Soze supposedly looks like, they’ll stop searching. If Soze did have unfinished business with other gangsters, or even if he likes to keep himself lowkey, Kint makes the perfect red herring.

The film keeps corruption as its core theme – even corruption in law enforcement. New York’s Finest Taxi Service is a bunch of corrupt police officers (and Keaton is an ex-corrupt cop), why not a corrupt customs official? It is Kujan who paints Kint as a nobody, a smalltime hustler despite his involvement in the massacre. Kujon is also one of the few characters to appear in both the present and in Kint’s narrative – taking Keaton in. The only other two – Kobayashi and Kint – are tied to Soze, why not Kujon? Theorists ascribe a lot of weight to Verbal being linked to the translation of Soze, but Kujon is slang for “evil person” in Indian. Of course, if we discount Keaton as a member of the NYPD, we should discount Kujon as a member of US Customs. It’s highly unlikely he’s from Turkey. Still, he’s never gone to prison, which makes it more likely he’s a criminal mastermind than Keaton and he’s a far-too-willing partner for Verbal’s dance.

I still lean with Verbal Kint. Perhaps I am too fond of Occam’s Razor, or perhaps I like the notion of Kevin Spacey as a mastermind, I don’t know. Still, I accept that the film is brilliantly ambiguous in its execution and more than a little ambiguous in its ending. We’ll never really know who Soze was, but we all have our suspects.

27 Responses

  1. Accepting that Kint is Soze also requires us to treat Kujan as a reliable source. Is this a mistake? It doesn’t seem like one. He’s a hardass and a relentless detective who doesn’t take no for an answer. But how much do we REALLY know about him? This is clearly a man who can’t go to bed until he figures out a song title or the name of that guy he beat up in fifth grade. Isn’t it possible Kujan was so desperate to put a face to Soze that he connected all these random dots? Maybe it’s all a crazy coincidence. Though I too am a fan of Occam’s Razor, there are exceptions. Crazier coincidences happen every day in life.

    Points to ponder…

    • Kint is incredibly good at what he’s doing – talking. It’s possible he’s simply ad-libbing based off what he’s given. I’d have to watch it again, but I don’t think Soze becomes involved in his narrative in a major way until after Kujon mentions the myth to him. It’s possible a burnt and delirious sailor was recalling spook stories he was told about the devil by the name of Soze and the whole thing got blown out of proportion.

  2. Great article, really well constructed and thought out. It was actually me that started the debate by saying it have been better with a little more ambiguity at the end. Although I stand by my first statement it is clear I need to see the film again to clarify a few points in my own mind.

    One thing I would disagree with you on is: “We know that Soze must exist”. I actually think there is a possibility that he does not exist. His existence is mainly based on hearsay and conjecture. As far as the existence of a character in a film and how other characters come to believe in their existence, I leave you with one name: George Kaplan.

    • Good point. Given the only evidence that the eyewitness was on the boat comes from Verbal, and the eyewitness is the only person who has ever seen Soze, we don’t actually know that anyone has seen Soze (given the eyewitness might not exist). The Turkish sailor could have been using “Soze” as a term equivalent to “devil” (which does fit with how he’s a criminal spook story) and using it to describe the killer on the boat (almost certainly Kint was involved at least, even if he wasn’t alone).

      If the greatest trick the devil ever pulled was convincing the world that he didn’t exist, maybe Kint’s greatest trick was convincing the world that Soze does.

      I love that there’s so much there that we can discuss the ending this deeply. 90% of other “twist” endings fall apart if you ever think them. This one coils in on itself.

  3. Good God I am rusty. This is a very good post and I realise I have not seen this in forever…but the first time round I was very impressed and at the time Spacey ranked in my 10 favourite supporting performances. I need to revisit it.

  4. interesting stuff Darren, if way over my head (yes, i had to google Occam’s Razor, and no, its not the new one from Gilette).

    • Sorry, I tend to forget that sometimes I can be quite esoteric with my little references and off-hand remarks. I’ve stuck a link in to the Wikipedia article on it for those interested.

  5. 1. It’s myth that he’s Turkish.
    2. why would Kujon want to put someone in his own spotlight?
    3. The bodies are shown as you go to the boat.
    4. In some of the movie posters the body bags have names on them apart from kint’s.
    5. Soze’ can be whio/what ever he wants because he is a myth.
    6. Kint sets himself up to be in a police line up with “The Usual Suspects” because he has a bone to pick with all of them.

    It is Kint. The least likely of all the suspects is a mastermind who gets the job done and “like that, dissapears” never to be seen again.
    Verbal is a made up name and so is Roger Kint. No records.

    Awesome film though (Y)

    Anyone else to add something?

  6. Kint was Soze. Here’s my theory: Everything told in the movie happened, though HOW it happened may have differed. Why a criminal mastermind would serve time for petty crimes is simple; To build a believable narrative as someone other than who he really was, that whole “The devil’s greatest trick” thing. How better to fool folks into thinking you don’t exist, than having a provable, verifiable existence as someone else? Keyser Soze HAS to exist, since the FBI agents at the hospital knew of him, and wouldn’t be so invested in a mere “spook” story. Also, Kujan couldn’t be Soze, as no one was more fooled or surprised at the end than him.

    • It all makes sense, and I concede that Occam’s Razor points to Kint as Soze. Truth be told, I don’t think I could make a compellinga rgument that it wasn’t Kint. This is really more of a thought experiment than a serious iron-clad argument. The surprise at the end is a big problem, but he was in an office and could be observed by those outside. Might be necessary to keep up the ruse. That’s stretching, of course, but I think it’s a fun (if hardly water-tight) alternative theory.

      • I found everything written, including the responses to be interesting and credible in their own right. After rewatching the film, I have my own theory.

        “Kobayashi” told them not to derive from the plan, after he was very forward in showing that they were all “touchable”. Verbal Kint, may really be Verbal Kint, however he was Soze’s inside man. Now, Keaton may have really told him to stay behind… this derived from the plan that “Kobayashi” set up for them, making it so that Soze’s inside man wasn’t in on the initial attack – as instructed, and because of this Edie payed. Basically he traded one life for another, by mistake.

        I also believe that McManus was’t supposed to be killed initially. However, he killed the two bodyguards. “Kobayashi” told him that it would be added to his tab, or something along those lines.

        I believe that Hockney was killed because he also derived from the plan. They were told that they could keep any money that had exchanged hands. In fact, no transaction had been made yet and he was trying to claim the cash. Remember, the guy who went to the van was one of the Hungarians, not one of the Argentinians, which means that the money was still in the hands of the Hungarians. We were thrown off by Hockney shouting “Don’t shoot” in Spanish. At this point, while the ship was under attack, we didn’t see the Argentinians and Hungarians attacking each other. So they knew it was an outside attack… that and the Hungarian had seen Hockney walk by and say hello. As small as the groups were, they would be able to know who was in their group, but would not have noticed an addition to the others group.

        Finally, this leaves Keaton. Why was Keaton killed? I believe one truth that was told by Kint, was that Keaton was the head of their group. He had the kind of “Don’t screw up.” attitude that would make a guy like him unofficially take over as the leader of the group. That said, as the leader of your team, if your team screws up… well, you get the axe. You’re responsible for your teams screw ups. That, and they needed “someone” to be Keyser Soze. Someone who wouldn’t be alive to deny it.

        On the boat, the only person that knew what Keyser Soze looked like was Arturo. I believe this to be true as well. In knowing who Keyser Soze is, firsthand, I believe that he had to be well respected at the time that they met. Not just anyone gets to meet the head of a major organized crime group. That said, he also had to know who his Generals, Captains, Lieutenants and even on down to some foot soldiers, were. This would mean that his reaction to who walked in the room was real. It may not have been Soze, but it was definitely someone connected to him.

        All that said, this means that the Hungarian in the Hospital was only assuming who Keyser Soze was and describing one of the attackers. The picture that was sent… well, it did kind of look like Verbal Kint…. but it also looked like “Kobayashi”. They have similar faces… and “Kobayashi” was Soze’s clean up man. While the group was distracting the Hungarians and Argentinians, he was able to sneak in and take out the only man who knew what his (Kobayashi’s) boss looked like. A man who he was extremely loyal to.

        While there, he could have also been tasked with making sure that the group was following the plan. Those who derived, were removed, as promised. So the police sketch could have been “Kobayashi” who was mistaken for Soze, due to coming in at the end, killing the snitch and setting the fire to “clean up” the scene.

      • Thanks! It’s great to get people speculating. And that’s a nice point about Kobayshi and Kint in terms of appearance.

  7. Several things…I just watched the movie three times in a row. It stuck out awkwardly that years ago Keaton and Kint had been in jail together and that’s how Keaton remembered him. Why? What happened between them? Why would Soze allow himself to be arrested? If you watch it for minor details you’ll notice that the foreshadowing and hints are almost heavy handed, so to speak, from the beginning and the ending. The newspaper clippings linger a little too long on camera, much is made of both Kint’s left arm as is the focus on ‘Soze’s’ left arm (unspoken, just filming) and the camera dwells on it multiple times both at the beginning and the end. In fact at the end it’s almost a gigantic ironic hint. The awkward lifting of the hand to check the time, pulling the gun out with one hand, passing it over to the left to shoot, etc. Kint has tremendous control and steady aim when he shoots the guy in the garage whom Keaton is struggling with.
    That said, the scene is told by Kint only so we don’t really know for sure what occurred. He’s detailing things in his narrative he could only have known from Keaton, or McManus or all the random people on the boat. He could not be all places at once.
    It’s also heavy handed, and that’s for lack of a better term because I love this movie and am not crticizing, but Kint makes an unnecessary point of not being able to manage his lighter and Kujon has to do it for him. Kujon already sees him as an ineffectual cripple, so it must be for our benefit, a Raymond Chandler-esque attempt to bring the audience into the subtextual hints. The film starts with matches being lit, yet there are lighters. We do not know that is Soze’s lighter btw. We only know the lighter is related to the left handedness of the supposed killer, if Keaton is even dead.
    It’s a hint and may not be the actual lighter.
    I don’t think Kujon is involved.
    What do you make of Keaton mentioning that he shivved someone to Redfoot. Is it just a veiled threat? Who was it? What was the motivation?
    When Kint says these men would never bend over for anyone, why does he say that? He said he knows that in the present tense, yet they did bend over (not in visceral sense) for Soze. Is he saying they’d never talk? What was the point of that ‘observation?’ Did Fenster really take off? OMG he was so funny in questioning when the detectives told him McManus was telling a very different story and he asked, ‘is it the one about the hooker with dysenterry?’
    They were all brilliant but McManus was perfectly cast by Baldwin and though they were all perfectly suited, he really stole some scenes.
    I did notice that though the people on the boat were supposed to be Argentinian, Kint asked what language it was and Keaton dismissed him by guessing Russian and ignored him when Kint suggested it was Hungarian. Then a few spoke Spanish. That seemed to be some awkward details.
    The whole light in Hockney’s face when he opened the $$case and got shot reminded me of Pulp Fiction. Random pointless observation. I enjoyed everyone’s ideas.

    • Thanks for the thoughts, Kint is… I just love the discussion that this generates.

      • I also got to thinking something that may be moot, Kint says Keaton was shot in the back and the head. Charred or not, those wounds would still be there. But nevermind because that doesn’t mean it IS Keaton’s shot up carcass. How does Arkosh Kovash fit in beyond being burned? Giancarlo Esposito’s character recognizes him, why? (how, also, he’s raw skin).

  8. If you pause the movie at the end where Soze shoots Keaton, it’s pretty clear it’s Kint. Gotta love HD. Mystery solved.

    • Yes, but the flashbacks are entirely subjective and unreliable. During the cop’s narration, Soze is Keaton, which is explicitly ruled out later on. So it’s possible we’re not seeing objective fact, but the story as the detective is constructing.

      I think it’s hard to argue that Soze wasn’t Kint, but it’s an interesting thought experiment.

  9. Right, but what I think the OP is saying, is that we don’t know that Kint is Soze. He could be using Soze as a smokescreen. He could be the lackey, “Kobayashi” could be Soze. I mean-why would a criminal mastermind do the dirty work? He could get a lackey to be a criminal among them and lure them to the boat. IDK. I know the writer says Kint is Soze. I’m just saying that they, intentionally or unintentionally, leave it open to interpretation.

  10. When Verbal first meets Kujan, he asks for coffee and mentions that when he got dehydrated, “One time my piss came out like snot, I’m not kidding. It was all thick…”

    The film opens up with Kaiser Soze pissing out the line of fire that Keaton starts. When the piss comes down, it’s incredibly thick (as evidenced by the sound it makes when it hits the ground).

    Now, unless Verbal and Soze are different people, and Verbal just happens to know what Soze’s piss is like, it’s obvious that Verbal is Soze and was the one on that boat.

  11. I always thought Soze is Kobayashi, even if the film does push for Verbal being Soze. The movie was just on local TV last night.

    Reasons :

    -his calm demeanor even when threatened with a gun, threats to the guys, two bodyguards in the elevator…that is no ordinary lawyer.

    -Also Soze is said to be half Turkish. Now Spacey looks like zero Turk in him; Postlewaite fits this bit much better. Also given the informant’s (on the boat) age, it would suggest Soze had made his reputation over decades. Another point for Kobayashi, not Soze.

    – the sketch. Sure it resembles Kint. But it looks more like Kobayashi with the narrow face and big eyes.

    – and that long, inquisitive glance Kobayshi gives to Verbal in the end. Like he was sussing out whether he talked…

    – also — a legendary crime boss gets caught at least twice in the US (remember Keaton talking to Verbal about his prior arrest), risks getting caught on a lie during interrogation and insists on getting on a boat loaded with people with guns and shooting people personally ? I don’t buy it.

    Verbal is someone high up enough on Soze’s list to eliminate the informant and the usual suspects. He has to stay behind to sell the story of Keaton being Soze (obviously Soze has enough power to get him out on bail, and before Keaton’s body is found thus exposing Verbal’s lie).
    Now, some say “but they have the testimony and the sketch” – and ? Sketch from a description of a half-dead man (not the eyewitness who can positively ID Soze, I might add) and a testimony full of fake info. For all we know, the 91 millions from the boat might be Soze’s retirement fund.

    All that said, I’m not familiar with US law : they have charges on arms posession on Verbal, but let him go without any ballistics test ? They know he had a gun, and he was on the boat…might make sense to hold him up until they do ballistics on the bodies. A potential multiple murder charge might be a little harder for Soze to overturn…

  12. Here’s an interesting idea – that none of them of Keyser Soze. Maybe everything was set up from afar by Soze.He’s underground, never seen,hiring minions to do his work. Hiring Verbal to gather and then execute the hit team and living witness, hiring Kobayashi to get Keaton’s girlfriend involved – and to get all the scary information about the Usual Suspect’s families/loved ones – he’s obviously a brilliant lawyer, maybe he helped Verbal in getting immunity – and to pick up Verbal after his interrogation. Kobayashi nods, jobs done, off they go. Could Verbal have killed Keaton’s girlfriend? Was it possible? (I don’t remember the time frame) Or did Soze hire someone else for that hit?
    Just said that to throw yet another possibility in that’s not been mentioned yet.

    Frankly I do think that Kint is Soze in that we, the viewers, are meant to put that information together. The lighter – someone else said the flashbacks are subjective. Yes, but if Verbal is telling the story – “I was hiding behind these ropes and could see what happened” – I doubt that he would have said to Kujan, “I could see the gold lighter in the killer’s hand, and that he awkwardly checked the time, as if he had a crippled hand, and switched hands to shoot”…that would be pretty self incriminating, wouldn’t it? I think that was for the audiences’s benefit to put it together. I thought it odd when I saw the beginning of the film, that Keaton looks up, and has this look of “oh, of course. I should have known. It’s over. ” A resigned look, and he obviously knows his killer. Then when the film returns to that moment, and gives us the gold lighter and body language. The only confusing thing is that the killer has a trenchcoat in the flashbacks – did Kint have one?

    And I checked three language translators, and Soz is Turkish for speaking, communication, voice, verbal, among other speech adjectives. Now that’s a little in joke, because most of us do not speak Turkish and would not know that Kint’s nickname equals Soze. And the initiials: Keyzer and Kint. Verbal = Speaking. Speaking Kint. KS.

    BTW: Not that the writers or director thought this way but there is nothing wrong with Spacey being of Turkish/German origin as Soze. You might think Kobayashi because he’s swarthy, but my co-worker is Egyptian and German, a pretty similar combination. And she has red-gold hair, green eyes, and a fair complexion.

    One thing about the sketch…didn’t it show a widows peak? Like Spacey’s?

  13. We see Keaton shot at the start in what we must assume is an example of what actually happened (a dangerous assumption, I concede).

    Hmmm…interesting point. I always thought this is real as it happens before Verbal’s “testimony” begins and obviously, the major setback in “Keaton is Soze” theory that Kujan insists on. Keaton possibly *not* being dead opens up a whole new bag of possibilities.

  14. The discussion is very interesting.

    My take:

    Watch the beginning of the move a couple of times.

    Listen to the actor who is talking to Keaton and it sounds like Kevin Spacey kind of masking his voice. Look at the actors mannerisms and it could be Kevin spacey.

    think about it. An actor HAD to act the part and speak to the Keaton character.

    If you were Brian Singer you’d have to chose someone to act the part and I think he chose Kevin Spacey. Somebody ask Brian Singer or someone else who filmed the movie…

    My two cents.

  15. Spacey confirmed that the character he played in The Usual Suspects was Turkish in a movie festival in Turkey.
    Not all Turks are swarthy. Spacey is a short guy with dark hair and eyes and a longish face. He looks pretty convincing. Not to mention that he was supposed to be half German.

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